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Page 4 Overall Study Guide 8th Grade US History

THE PATH LEADS TO CIVIL WAR – Brother fights brother
·        As the nation grew due to expansion & manifest destiny many Americans feared the expansion of slavery
·        A series of compromises attempted to cure the slavery vs. free state issue
·        The Missouri Compromise of 1820 tried to keep the balance of free & slave states in the Union
·        The Compromise of 1850 left the issue of slavery up to residents in the newly settled territories
·        This idea was called popular sovereignty, where territory citizens voted for or against slavery
·        The book Uncle Tom’s Cabin was important because illustrated to many Americans the evil of slavery
·        The Dred Scott decision of 1857 decided that slaves were property & not citizens of the US
·        The Republican Party was founded to rid the US of slavery & became the party of Abe Lincoln
·        John Brown led a raid to Harper’s Ferry, Virginia to seize weapons to start a slave rebellion
·        The election of Abraham Lincoln led many southern states to decided to leave the Union
·        Sectionalism, states’ rights, & slavery caused the US to fight a civil war between north (free) vs. the south (slave-owning)
·        The secession of many southern states from the Union & the attack on Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina started the war
·        The Confederacy was created & Jefferson Davis became its president
·        The primary goal for Lincoln in fighting the war was to preserve the Union
·        Initially, the Union planned on capturing Richmond, blockading southern ports, and controlling the Mississippi River
·        The South planned on winning the war by fighting a defensive war and wearing down the Union desire to fight the war
·        For the south, the Civil War was a fight to keep their traditional ways of life & secede from the Union. For the north, it was a fight to preserve the Union & rid the nation of slavery
·        The North had the advantages of its large industrial centers, large railroad network, natural resources, & money. The south had the advantage of knowing the land, fighting a defensive war, & the great military leadership of Robert E. Lee
·        Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation following the Battle of Antietam, which broadened the purpose of the war, which would now be to free or emancipate southern slaves
·        The Emancipation Proclamation freed all the slaves in the Confederacy, which really freed no slaves because the Union did not control the Confederate states
·        Gettysburg and Vicksburg (1863) were both Northern victories, and marked the turning point of the Civil War in the North
·        In the Gettysburg Address, President Lincoln stated that the purpose of the Civil War was to defend democracy and spread freedom
·        President Lincoln appointed as his chief general Ulysses S. Grant, who planned to fight a total war with the South by destroying their ability to fight
·        As a result of the war, slavery was abolished, the south had to rejoin the Union, more Americans died than in any other American war since then American fought Americans
·        America would struggle to rebuild the nation after the destruction of so much property
RECONSTRUCTION – The Nation Heals its Wounds
·        Total war is the idea of destroying your enemy’s economy by destroying all of their food and equipment
·        Following the Civil War the South was destroyed both physically and economically
·        Reconstruction was the period in which the South was rebuilt, and restored to the Union
·        Carpetbaggers were northerners who moved south during Reconstruction to gain wealth or power
·        Scalawags were southerners who supported the Radical Republicans who were viewed as traitors by fellow southerners
·        A positive effect of Reconstruction was that new constitutional amendments expanded the political and civil rights of African-Americans
·        Black Codes were laws which restricted the rights of African-Americans in the South
·        Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, Grandfather Clauses, and Jim Crow Laws were all tools used by Southern governments following Reconstruction to deny rights to African-Americans
·        The Ku Klux Klan was a group, which terrorized African-Americans in the South and attempted to maintain segregation in the South, as well as preventing African-Americans from exercising their right to vote.
·        Segregation is the process of separating the races in society (keeping whites and blacks separated)
·        African-Americans in the South (freedmen) were extremely poor following the war, and many became sharecroppers
·        Sharecropping was virtually a new form of slavery where freedmen were taken advantage of by rich landowners
·        The Freedmen’s Bureau was established to help former slaves by providing food, job training, and an education
·        Black Codes and Jim Crow Laws were both southern attempts to deny African-Americans their political and civil rights
·        Segregation became legalized in 1896 following the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision, which stated that segregation was legal if “separate but equal” facilities were provided to both whites and blacks. The facilities were rarely if ever “equal.”
·        Impeachment is when a public official is accused of committing a crime or some other wrongdoing
·        Carpetbaggers were northerners who moved south during Reconstruction to gain wealth or power
·        Scalawags were southerners who supported the Radical Republicans who were viewed as traitors by fellow southerners.