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Page 2 Overall Study Guide 8th Grade US History

·        The colony on Roanoke Island (present day North Carolina) was England’s first attempt at colonization in the Americas, which was along the Atlantic Coast of North America
·        Jamestown was England’s first permanent colony in the Americas, but was plagued by disease, hunger, hostile Indians, and lazy workers
·        Jamestown grew because of John Rolfe’s success planting tobacco as a cash crop.
·        The House of Burgesses was the colony’s first representative body in the New World, and helped pave the way for representative government in all the colonies.
·        The New England colonies (Plymouth à Pilgrims & Massachusetts Bay à Puritans) were founded for RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
·        The Mayflower Compact was a document signed by the Pilgrims, which promised to set up a government, which received its power from the people.
·        The Puritans left England to build a religious society in America so they could practice their religion freely
·        Thomas Hooker (a Puritan dissenter) founded Connecticut because he feared that the Massachusetts government was too powerful
·        Roger Williams founded Rhode Island because he fled Massachusetts due to religious differences with Puritans
·        New Englanders fought King Phillip’s War against Native Americans (Metacom) who were fearful of the growth of the colonies, and the lose of tribal land
·        The colonists at Plymouth were helped to survive and adapt to the Americas, because Native Americans taught them to plant corn and fish
·        Despite this, the soil of New England was rocky, and was hampered by a short growing season.
·        The Middle Colonies (Breadbasket Colonies) were known for both their farming and their trading success
·        New Netherland, which was controlled by the Dutch, became New York after it was taken over by the English
·        The Triangular Trade was a informal trading route between North America, Europe, and Africa, which involved such items as sugar, rum, molasses, slaves, manufactured goods, and iron
·        The triangular trade was a colonial shipping route between New England, the West Indies, and Africa
·        The backcountry was an inland area at the base of the Appalachian Mountains
·        Many British settlers moved to the backcountry because of the free land which was available for farming and settlement
·        This westward movement caused increased tension between white settlers and Native-Americans, which led to Bacon’s Rebellion
·        In the colonies only white Christian males, who owned land, and were 21 years of age, could vote.
·        The colony of Georgia was established for debtors who were jailed in England
·        William Penn was the founder of Pennsylvania, a religious haven for Quakers
·        John Winthrop helped to found the Massachusetts Bay colony for the Puritans
·        Cecilius Calvert, (Lord Baltimore) helped establish Maryland as a safe haven for Catholics
·        Roger Williams established Rhode Island to escaper religious persecution as the hands of the Puritans
·        Indentured servants were those who agreed to work without wages for a length of time in exchange for passage on a ship to the Americas
·        A plantation was a large self-sufficient farm and estate, which utilized slave labor to produce cash crops such as tobacco, rice, indigo, or cotton
·        Mercantilism is an economic theory, which stated that a nation becomes strong by building up its supply of gold, and by expanding its trade, at the expense of its colonies. “mother” England
·        The Great Awakening was a religious movement, which spread throughout the English colonies
·        The Salem Witch Trials caused the unwarranted death of many of Salem’s citizens, and illustrated how religious fanaticism can be harmful
·        The Peter Zenger case helped to establish the idea of Freedom of the Press in the English colonies, by allowing the press to criticize colonial governments
·        The conflict over land led to the French and Indian War in colonial North America
·        The Albany Plan of Union was the idea of Ben Franklin, in which he called for the colonies to unite to defend themselves against French and Indian attacks
·        The British military and the colonists won the French and Indian war, and as a result, gained all the French lands in North America
·        The British government was left with a huge monetary debt following the French and Indian War, which they wanted the colonists in America to shrink by paying taxes
·        The Proclamation of 1763 forbade the colonists from settling on land west of the Appalachian Mountains, in an effort to avoid the settlers conflict with Native Americans
·        “Salutatory Neglect” is the term given to the time period when Britain largely left the colonies to govern themselves, and where the colonists ignored British mercantilism laws (smuggling & trading with other European powers)
·        Colonists reacted differently to Parliamentary practices, some protested peacefully (boycotting), while some resorted to mob violence (tar and feathering)
·        A boycott was a non-violent form of protest where colonists refused to buy British trade goods
·        The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to help raise money to repay the debt left from fighting the French and Indian War
·        Colonists in Massachusetts staged the Boston Tea Party to protest the British tax on tea
·        Colonists began to debate if it was fair for the British Parliament to tax them since the colonists did not have elected representatives in the English Parliament
·        The Sons of Liberty were colonists who staged protests against British colonial policies
·        “No Taxation without Representation” was a colonial response to British economic policies toward the economy
·        The Boston Massacre resulted in the unfortunate death of 5 colonists after an altercation with British Troops
·        The Olive Branch Petition was a colonial effort to restore peace between the British government and the colonies; however, it was ignored by King George III
·        Thomas Paine’s Common Sense made many colonists support the idea of independence from Britain
·        John Locke was a British political theorist who stated that the power to govern came from the people
·        Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence in July of 1776
·        The Declaration of Independence was based on the idea of natural rights, or rights that belong to all human beings (these rights are acquired at birth)
·        The colonists viewed the idea of unity (oneness) as a strong defense against Great Britain
·        The Revolutionary War began with the Battles at Lexington (Shot Heard Round the World) and Concord
·        Supporters of Great Britain were known as Loyalists or Tories
·        Supporters of independence were known as Patriots
·        George Washington of Virginia was granted control of the Continental Army
·        The Americans had the advantage of knowledge of the American terrain, and leadership of George Washington
·        In the winter of 1777, the Continental Army spent a long harsh winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
·        The Battle of Saratoga was a colonial victory, and proved to be the turning point of the war because the victory helped to secure France as an ally (Scary thought, I know!)
·        France aided the colonies by providing money, supplies, and military assistance
·        The Revolution came to an end with the surrender of General Cornwallis and his British forces at Yorktown, Virginia
·        The Treaty of Paris (1783) established the United States of America as a free and independent nation