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Hello.  I am Scott Allen and you can reach me by phone from at 606-666-7511 from 9:00 until 9:50 or you can email me at scott.allen@breathitt.kyschools.us

 

Literary Terms

 

Alliteration is the repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together in a poem. 

 

Open her I flung the shutter, when with

     Many a flirt and flutter,

In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly

    Days of yore. 

Edgar Allen Poe from “The Raven.”

 

Allegory is a short story of poem that has more meaning than is apparent.  For example, Aesop’s fable about the tortoise and the hare is about more than the animals’ race.  The audience should understand the importance of persistence.  Homer reflects this theme in The Odyssey, explaining, “Evil deeds do not prosper; the slow catch up with the swift.” 

 

Allusion is a reference to a statement, a person, or an event from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture. 

 

Dickens writes of “The wicked Noah’s Ark,” making an allusion to Noah from the Bible. 

 

Apostrophe is when the speaker speaks to something not there, or not human, on inanimate, like a statue, as though the entity could respond.  This lets the audience glimpse the speaker’s imagination. 

 

Assonance is a repetition of vowel sounds in language and poetry. 

 

The light of the fire is a sight. 

 

Consonance means the repetition of certain sounds, usually consonants for poetic effect. 

 

Blank and think, spell and scald . . .

 

Dialect is a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

Diction is a writer’s or a speaker’s choice of words.  Diction is an essential element of a writer’s style.  (Simple to ornate to everything in between)

 

An epic is a long story told in elevated language, which relates the great deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society.  Most epics include elements of myth, legend, folk tale, and history.  Epics cover most of the known world, a possible visit to the underworld, and the supernatural. 

 

An epithet is an adjective or descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, thing, or an idea.  (Honest Abe, the Dark Knight, the Man of Steal, rosy-fingered dawn, the wine dark sea, the gray-eyed goddess Athena are examples of epithets) 

 

Hyperbole is a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion of to create comic effect.  Writers often use hyperbole, called overstatement, to intensify a description or to emphasize the essential nature of something.  If you way that a limousine is as long as an ocean liner, you are using hyperbole. 

 

Imagery is language that appeals to the senses.  Imagery is often visual, as when a writer creates pictures in our mind.  Imagery can also appeal to sound, touch, taste, smell, or even to several senses at once. 

 

Irony is a contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality. 

 

In verbal irony, a writer or speaker says one thing but means something completely different. 

 

If you refer to a clumsy basketball player as the next Michael Jordan, you are using verbal irony. 

 

A metaphor is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the word like, as, than, or resembles. 

 

Onomatopoeia is the use of a word whose sound imitates or suggests its meaning.  Onomatopoeia is so natural to us that we begin using it instinctively as children.  Crackle, pop, fizz, click, zoom, and chirp are examples of onomatopoeia.  

 

A paradox is a statement or situation that seems to be a contradiction but reveals a truth.  Paradoxes in literature are designed to make readers stop and think.  When O. Henry, in “The Gift of the Magi,” refers to the impoverished Della and Jim as “one of the richest couples on earth,” he is stating a paradox. 

 

Personification is a kind of metaphor in which a nonhuman thing or quality is talked about as if it were human. 

 

Satire is a type of writing that ridicules something in order to reveal a weakness.  Satire may ridicule a person, a group of people, humanity at large, an attitude of failing, or a social institution. 

 

Simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, resembles, or than. 

 

A symbol is a person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and for something beyond itself as well.  Odysseus’ bow is a bow, and the bow is a symbol for Odysseus.  Odysseus is the wily peer to the gods, and he alone can string the bow, because he is the hero of The Odyssey.    

 

The theme is the central idea of a work of literature.  A theme is not the same as the subject.  The theme is the idea the writer wishes to reveal about the subject.   

_____________ is the repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together in a poem. 

 

Open her I flung the shutter, when with

     Many a flirt and flutter,

In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly

    Days of yore. 

Edgar Allen Poe from “The Raven.”

 

____________ is a short story of poem that has more meaning than is apparent. 

 

For example, Aesop’s fable about the tortoise and the hare is about more than the animals’ race.  The audience should understand the importance of persistence.  The fable is an ______________.    

 

Homer reflects this theme in The Odyssey, explaining, “Evil deeds do not prosper; the slow catch up with the swift.” 

 

______________ is a reference to a statement, a person, or an event from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture. 

 

Dickens writes of “The wicked Noah’s Ark,” making an ____________ to Noah from the Bible. 

 

___________ is when the speaker speaks to something not there, or not human, on inanimate, like a statue, as though the entity could respond.  The use of __________ lets the audience glimpse the speaker’s imagination.  (Speaking to statue or something not human)    

 

______________ is a repetition of vowel sounds in language and poetry. 

 

The light of the fire is a sight is an example of ___________. 

 

______________ means the repetition of certain sounds, usually consonants for poetic effect. 

 

Blank and think, spell and scald . . .

 

________________ is a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

____________ is a writer’s or a speaker’s choice of words. 

 

_______________ is an essential element of a writer’s style.  (Simple to ornate to everything in between)

 

An ________ is a long story told in elevated language, which relates the great deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society. 

 

Most __________ include elements of myth, legend, folk tale, and history. 

 

_________ cover most of the known world, a possible visit to the underworld, and the supernatural. 

 

An ___________ is an adjective or descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, thing, or an idea.  (Honest Abe, the Dark Knight, the Man of Steal, rosy-fingered dawn, the wine dark sea, the gray-eyed goddess Athena are examples of __________) 

 

__________ is a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion of to create comic effect. 

 

Writers often use ______________, called overstatement, to intensify a description or to emphasize the essential nature of something. 

 

If you way that a limousine is as long as an ocean liner, you are using __________. 

 

_____________ is language that appeals to the senses. 

 

___________ is often visual, as when a writer creates pictures in our mind. 

 

__________ can also appeal to sound, touch, taste, smell, or even to several senses at once. 

 

___________ is a contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality. 

 

In ________ __________, a writer or speaker says one thing but means something completely different. 

If you refer to a clumsy basketball player as the next Michael Jordan, you are using ________ __________. 

 

A _____________ is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the word like, as, than, or resembles. 

_____________ is the use of a word whose sound imitates or suggests its meaning. 

 

_____________ is so natural to us that we begin using it instinctively as children. 

 

Crackle, pop, fizz, click, zoom, and chirp are examples of _____________.  

 

A __________ is a statement or situation that seems to be a contradiction but reveals a truth. 

 

__________ in literature are designed to make readers stop and think.  When O. Henry, in “The Gift of the Magi,” refers to the impoverished Della and Jim as “one of the richest couples on earth,” he is stating a __________. 

 

_____________ is a kind of metaphor in which a nonhuman thing or quality is talked about as if it were human. 

 

____________ is a type of writing that ridicules something in order to reveal a weakness. 

 

__________ may ridicule a person, a group of people, humanity at large, an attitude of failing, or a social institution. 

 

_________- is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, resembles, or than. 

 

A __________ is a person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and for something beyond itself as well. 

 

Odysseus’ bow is a bow, and the bow is a _________ for Odysseus. 

 

__________ is the wily peer to the gods, and he alone can string the bow, because he is the hero of The Odyssey.    

 

The __________ is the central idea of a work of literature.  A _________ is not the same as the subject. 

 

The ___________ is the idea the writer wishes to reveal about the subject.   

 

Review and Additional Terms      

 

The word abstract can be an adjective that means difficult to understand or expressing a quality apart from the object.  Love, hate, dread, kindness are examples of abstract ideas.   

 

An abstract noun is a noun denoting something immaterial and abstract, like rest, dread, kindness, love, anger, peace, loyalty, integrity, pride, courage, deceit, honesty, trust, compassion, and much more.

 

An accent is a noun that refers to a distinctive mode of pronunciation of language, especially one associated with a particular nation, locality, or social class. 

 

Alliteration is a noun that means a repetition of the same of very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together.  (Steve wore his seer sucker suit that he bought on sale for the second week of school.) 

 

The word allegory is a noun that refers to a story that expresses truths or generalizations about human existence.  For example, the allegory of “The Tortoise and the Hare” is slow and steady wins the race. 

 

An allusion is a noun that makes a reference to a statement, a person, a place or an event from history, literature, religion, politics, sports, science, or pop culture.  Allusions can tie literature to real life.  

 

The most emotional moment of the story is the climax, when the outcome of the conflict is finally revealed.

 

A character is a person in a story, poem, or play.  Characters may also be animals, Brave Little Toasters, and more.

 

The process of revealing the personality of a character is called characterization.

 

Character traits are all the aspects of a person’s behavior and attitudes that make up a person’s personality.  Some examples of character traits include active, bossy, compassionate, competitive, cruel, dependable, and eager.    

 

To cite text means to give supporting evidence from the text. 

 

A concrete noun may be defined as a noun denoting something material and non-abstract, as a chair, house, or car, and much more.

 

A conflict is a struggle against some outside enemy or some internal problem.  Examples of conflicts include character versus character, character versus society, character versus nature, or an idea against an idea (Vengeance versus Forgiveness).  If a character is struggling with some inner problem, such as fear, anger or homesickness, the character is contending with an internal conflict.  If a character is struggling against something outside himself or herself, like in “The Sniper,” he or she has an external conflict

  

Connotation is an abstract noun that means all of the meanings, associations, and emotions that a word suggests.  For example, skinny and slender both mean thin.  However, skinny and slender have different connotations.  Skinny might be considered an insult.  Slender is usually a compliment.  

 

The word dialect is a noun the means a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

When a writer uses direct characterization the author tells us directly what the character is like. 

 

Dramatic irony occurs when the audience knows something important the character or characters do not. 

 

A dynamic character is a character that changes as the result of the story’s events. 

 

Figurative language or figures of speech are words or phrases that describe one thing in terms of another and are not meant to be understood on a literal level. 

 

A first-person narrator is a character in the story.

 

A flat character has only one or two character traits, and these can be described in a few words.  (In drama and literature, Nazis are usually flat characters.  Demons and the Devil are flat characters.  )

 

A folk tale is any story passed down by ordinary people through the oral tradition.

 

The word grammar is a noun that may be defined as a set of patterns concerning the way words and are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences, whether spoken or in writing. 

 

The word foreshadowing can be a verb or a noun that means the author uses clues to hint at events that will occur later in the story.

 

The word hyperbole is a noun that refers to a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion or to create comic effect.  “The limousine was as long as an ocean liner.” 

 

When a writer uses indirect characterization, we have to use our own judgment to decide what a character is like based on evidence the writer gives us.  Some methods of indirect characterization could include the author describing how the character dresses, speaks, behaves, and appears.       

 

An ironic situation is a situation that turns out to be the opposite of what we expected.

 

The word literal is an adjective that means taking words at the usual and most basic sense without using simile, metaphor, or any kind of figurative meaning. 

 

The word metaphor is a noun that refers to a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the word, like, as, than, or resembles.  “My father is a work horse.” 

 

To narrate is a verb that means to give a written or spoken account. 

 

The narrator is the voice telling the story. 

 

The word objective can be an adjective that means having a reality independent of the mind.  Facts are objective.  Opinions are subjective.  “Numbers behave.  Words do not.”  The word objective can be an adjective that means not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased. 

 

An oxymoron is a noun that refers to a figure of speech in which two opposite ideas are joined to create an effect.  (cruel kindness, living death) 

 

A paradox is a statement of situation that seems to be a contradiction but reveals a truth.  (The more a man learns, the more he realizes how little he knows.” Anonymous)

 

The word personification is a noun that refers to a kind of metaphor in which nonhuman things are talked about as if they were human.

 

A story’s plot is a series of related events, like a chain.  Exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and the resolution make up the plot.  The exposition reveals the characters and setting. A particular conflict is introduced in the rising action.  The conflict is resolved in the climax, the most emotional moment of the story.  Falling action follows the conflict, where the audience may learn more details about the conflict and the way it worked out.  .  Finally, the story ends with the resolution, which may be happily ever after or heartbreaking or somewhere in between.          

 

Point of View is the vantage point from which a story is told. 

 

A round character is a character that has many different character traits that sometimes contradict each other, like a real person. 

 

A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought.  A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.  A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses but no subordinate clauses.  A complex sentence has one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.  A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.

 

A story’s setting tells when and where the story takes place.

 

A simile is a noun that refers to a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, or than.  “I love you like Kanye loves Kanye.” 

 

Situational irony occurs when there is a contrast between what would seem appropriate and what really happens.  (Regan’s limo, “The Sniper,” and “The Interlopers,” are examples of situational irony.) 

 

Standard English is a noun that refers to the English that is well established by usage in the formal and informal speech and writing of the educated and that is widely recognized and acceptable wherever English is spoken.   

 

A static character is a character that does not change much in a story.

 

The word subjective can be an adjective that means existing in the mind; belonging to the thinking subject rather than the object of thought.  (Opposed to the subjective)

 

A surprise ending resolves story’s climax in an unexpected-yet logical-way.

  

The word suspense is a noun that refers to the uncertainty we feel about what is going to happen next in a story.  Suspense is the feeling that keeps us on the edge of our seat.  

 

A story’s theme is often revealed by what a character has discovered as a result of the action.  The theme is also the central idea of a work of literature.

 

A story’s title often gives clues to the story’s theme. 

 

A third-person limited point of view focuses on the thoughts and feelings of a single character in the story.   

 

An unreliable narrator is someone who is not always perceptive about what is going on in a story, or someone who is deliberately not telling the truth. 

 

When using verbal irony, the speaker says one thing but really means something completely different. 

 

Parts of Speech

 

An __________ is a word that modifies or describes a noun or a pronoun. (smart students, nice school)

 

An __________ is a word that modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

 

A __________ is a word that joins words, phrases, or clauses.  (and, but, or, while, because)

 

A ____________ is a word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in a sentence.  (He likes sugar on cereal.)

 

An ____________ is a word that is used to express emotion.  (Oh!  Wow!  Oops!)

 

A __________ is a word or words that represent a person, place, thing, or an idea.

 

A ___________ is a word used in place of a noun.  (she, we, they, it, you . . .)

 

A _________ is a word that expresses action or a state of being.  (He jumped.  Pride is an abstract noun.)

 

THE END of Final Review.  The notes are repeated below.  

 

Know FANBOYS

 

 

Literary Terms

 

Alliteration is the repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together in a poem. 

 

Open her I flung the shutter, when with

     Many a flirt and flutter,

In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly

    Days of yore. 

Edgar Allen Poe from “The Raven.”

 

Allegory is a short story of poem that has more meaning than is apparent.  For example, Aesop’s fable about the tortoise and the hare is about more than the animals’ race.  The audience should understand the importance of persistence.  Homer reflects this theme in The Odyssey, explaining, “Evil deeds do not prosper; the slow catch up with the swift.” 

 

Allusion is a reference to a statement, a person, or an event from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture. 

 

Dickens writes of “The wicked Noah’s Ark,” making an allusion to Noah from the Bible. 

 

Apostrophe is when the speaker speaks to something not there, or not human, on inanimate, like a statue, as though the entity could respond.  This lets the audience glimpse the speaker’s imagination. 

 

Assonance is a repetition of vowel sounds in language and poetry. 

 

The light of the fire is a sight. 

 

Consonance means the repetition of certain sounds, usually consonants for poetic effect. 

 

Blank and think, spell and scald . . .

 

Dialect is a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

Diction is a writer’s or a speaker’s choice of words.  Diction is an essential element of a writer’s style.  (Simple to ornate to everything in between)

 

An epic is a long story told in elevated language, which relates the great deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society.  Most epics include elements of myth, legend, folk tale, and history.  Epics cover most of the known world, a possible visit to the underworld, and the supernatural. 

 

An epithet is an adjective or descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, thing, or an idea.  (Honest Abe, the Dark Knight, the Man of Steal, rosy-fingered dawn, the wine dark sea, the gray-eyed goddess Athena are examples of epithets) 

 

Hyperbole is a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion of to create comic effect.  Writers often use hyperbole, called overstatement, to intensify a description or to emphasize the essential nature of something.  If you way that a limousine is as long as an ocean liner, you are using hyperbole. 

 

Imagery is language that appeals to the senses.  Imagery is often visual, as when a writer creates pictures in our mind.  Imagery can also appeal to sound, touch, taste, smell, or even to several senses at once. 

 

Irony is a contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality. 

 

In verbal irony, a writer or speaker says one thing but means something completely different. 

 

If you refer to a clumsy basketball player as the next Michael Jordan, you are using verbal irony. 

 

A metaphor is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the word like, as, than, or resembles. 

 

Onomatopoeia is the use of a word whose sound imitates or suggests its meaning.  Onomatopoeia is so natural to us that we begin using it instinctively as children.  Crackle, pop, fizz, click, zoom, and chirp are examples of onomatopoeia.  

 

A paradox is a statement or situation that seems to be a contradiction but reveals a truth.  Paradoxes in literature are designed to make readers stop and think.  When O. Henry, in “The Gift of the Magi,” refers to the impoverished Della and Jim as “one of the richest couples on earth,” he is stating a paradox. 

 

Personification is a kind of metaphor in which a nonhuman thing or quality is talked about as if it were human. 

 

Satire is a type of writing that ridicules something in order to reveal a weakness.  Satire may ridicule a person, a group of people, humanity at large, an attitude of failing, or a social institution. 

 

Simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, resembles, or than. 

 

A symbol is a person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and for something beyond itself as well.  Odysseus’ bow is a bow, and the bow is a symbol for Odysseus.  Odysseus is the wily peer to the gods, and he alone can string the bow, because he is the hero of The Odyssey.    

 

The theme is the central idea of a work of literature.  A theme is not the same as the subject.  The theme is the idea the writer wishes to reveal about the subject.         

 

Parts of Speech

 

An adjective is a word that modifies or describes a noun or a pronoun. (smart students, nice school)

 

An adverb is a word that modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

 

A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, or clauses.  (and, but, or, while, because)

 

A preposition is a word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in a sentence.  (He likes sugar on cereal.)

 

An interjection is a word that is used to express emotion.  (Oh!  Wow!  Oops!)

 

A noun is a word or words that represent a person, place, thing, or an idea.

 

A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.  (she, we, they, it, you . . .)

 

A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being.  (He jumped.  Pride is an abstract noun.)

 

Review and Additional Terms      

 

The word abstract can be an adjective that means difficult to understand or expressing a quality apart from the object.  Love, hate, dread, kindness are examples of abstract ideas.   

 

An abstract noun is a noun denoting something immaterial and abstract, like rest, dread, kindness, love, anger, peace, loyalty, integrity, pride, courage, deceit, honesty, trust, compassion, and much more.

 

An accent is a noun that refers to a distinctive mode of pronunciation of language, especially one associated with a particular nation, locality, or social class. 

 

Alliteration is a noun that means a repetition of the same of very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together.  (Steve wore his seer sucker suit that he bought on sale for the second week of school.) 

 

The word allegory is a noun that refers to a story that expresses truths or generalizations about human existence.  For example, the allegory of “The Tortoise and the Hare” is slow and steady wins the race. 

 

An allusion is a noun that makes a reference to a statement, a person, a place or an event from history, literature, religion, politics, sports, science, or pop culture.  Allusions can tie literature to real life.  

 

The most emotional moment of the story is the climax, when the outcome of the conflict is finally revealed.

 

A character is a person in a story, poem, or play.  Characters may also be animals, Brave Little Toasters, and more.

 

The process of revealing the personality of a character is called characterization.

 

Character traits are all the aspects of a person’s behavior and attitudes that make up a person’s personality.  Some examples of character traits include active, bossy, compassionate, competitive, cruel, dependable, and eager.    

 

To cite text means to give supporting evidence from the text. 

 

A concrete noun may be defined as a noun denoting something material and non-abstract, as a chair, house, or car, and much more.

 

A conflict is a struggle against some outside enemy or some internal problem.  Examples of conflicts include character versus character, character versus society, character versus nature, or an idea against an idea (Vengeance versus Forgiveness).  If a character is struggling with some inner problem, such as fear, anger or homesickness, the character is contending with an internal conflict.  If a character is struggling against something outside himself or herself, like in “The Sniper,” he or she has an external conflict

  

Connotation is an abstract noun that means all of the meanings, associations, and emotions that a word suggests.  For example, skinny and slender both mean thin.  However, skinny and slender have different connotations.  Skinny might be considered an insult.  Slender is usually a compliment.  

 

The word dialect is a noun the means a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

When a writer uses direct characterization the author tells us directly what the character is like. 

 

Dramatic irony occurs when the audience knows something important the character or characters do not. 

 

A dynamic character is a character that changes as the result of the story’s events. 

 

Figurative language or figures of speech are words or phrases that describe one thing in terms of another and are not meant to be understood on a literal level. 

 

A first-person narrator is a character in the story.

 

A flat character has only one or two character traits, and these can be described in a few words.  (In drama and literature, Nazis are usually flat characters.  Demons and the Devil are flat characters.  )

 

A folk tale is any story passed down by ordinary people through the oral tradition.

 

The word grammar is a noun that may be defined as a set of patterns concerning the way words and are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences, whether spoken or in writing. 

 

The word foreshadowing can be a verb or a noun that means the author uses clues to hint at events that will occur later in the story.

 

The word hyperbole is a noun that refers to a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion or to create comic effect.  “The limousine was as long as an ocean liner.” 

 

When a writer uses indirect characterization, we have to use our own judgment to decide what a character is like based on evidence the writer gives us.  Some methods of indirect characterization could include the author describing how the character dresses, speaks, behaves, and appears.       

 

An ironic situation is a situation that turns out to be the opposite of what we expected.

 

The word literal is an adjective that means taking words at the usual and most basic sense without using simile, metaphor, or any kind of figurative meaning. 

 

The word metaphor is a noun that refers to a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the word, like, as, than, or resembles.  “My father is a work horse.” 

 

To narrate is a verb that means to give a written or spoken account. 

 

The narrator is the voice telling the story. 

 

The word objective can be an adjective that means having a reality independent of the mind.  Facts are objective.  Opinions are subjective.  “Numbers behave.  Words do not.”  The word objective can be an adjective that means not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased. 

 

An oxymoron is a noun that refers to a figure of speech in which two opposite ideas are joined to create an effect.  (cruel kindness, living death) 

 

A paradox is a statement of situation that seems to be a contradiction but reveals a truth.  (The more a man learns, the more he realizes how little he knows.” Anonymous)

 

The word personification is a noun that refers to a kind of metaphor in which nonhuman things are talked about as if they were human.

 

A story’s plot is a series of related events, like a chain.  Exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and the resolution make up the plot.  The exposition reveals the characters and setting. A particular conflict is introduced in the rising action.  The conflict is resolved in the climax, the most emotional moment of the story.  Falling action follows the conflict, where the audience may learn more details about the conflict and the way it worked out.  .  Finally, the story ends with the resolution, which may be happily ever after or heartbreaking or somewhere in between.          

 

Point of View is the vantage point from which a story is told. 

A round character is a character that has many different character traits that sometimes contradict each other, like a real person. 

 

A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought.  A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.  A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses but no subordinate clauses.  A complex sentence has one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.  A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.

 

A story’s setting tells when and where the story takes place.

 

A simile is a noun that refers to a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, or than.  “I love you like Kanye loves Kanye.” 

 

Situational irony occurs when there is a contrast between what would seem appropriate and what really happens.  (Regan’s limo, “The Sniper,” and “The Interlopers,” are examples of situational irony.) 

 

Standard English is a noun that refers to the English that is well established by usage in the formal and informal speech and writing of the educated and that is widely recognized and acceptable wherever English is spoken.   

 

A static character is a character that does not change much in a story.

 

The word subjective can be an adjective that means existing in the mind; belonging to the thinking subject rather than the object of thought.  (Opposed to the subjective)

 

A surprise ending resolves story’s climax in an unexpected-yet logical-way.

  

The word suspense is a noun that refers to the uncertainty we feel about what is going to happen next in a story.  Suspense is the feeling that keeps us on the edge of our seat.  

 

A story’s theme is often revealed by what a character has discovered as a result of the action.  The theme is also the central idea of a work of literature.

 

A story’s title often gives clues to the story’s theme. 

 

A third-person limited point of view focuses on the thoughts and feelings of a single character in the story.   

 

An unreliable narrator is someone who is not always perceptive about what is going on in a story, or someone who is deliberately not telling the truth. 

 

When using verbal irony, the speaker says one thing but really means something completely different. 

Review and Additional Terms    

The word __________ can be an adjective that means difficult to understand or expressing a quality apart from the object.  Love, hate, dread, kindness are examples of abstract ideas.   

 

An _________ __________ is a noun denoting something immaterial and abstract, like rest, dread, kindness, love, anger, peace, loyalty, integrity, pride, courage, deceit, honesty, trust, compassion, and much more.

 

An ___________ is a noun that refers to a distinctive mode of pronunciation of language, especially one associated with a particular nation, locality, or social class. 

 

______________ is a noun that means a repetition of the same of very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together.  (Steve wore his seer sucker suit that he bought on sale for the second week of school.) 

 

The word ____________ is a noun that refers to a story that expresses truths or generalizations about human existence.  For example, the allegory of “The Tortoise and the Hare” is slow and steady wins the race. 

 

An __________ is a noun that makes a reference to a statement, a person, a place or an event from history, literature, religion, politics, sports, science, or pop culture.  Allusions can tie literature to real life.  

 

The most emotional moment of the story is the ___________, when the outcome of the conflict is finally revealed.

 

A ___________ is a person in a story, poem, or play.  Characters may also be animals, Brave Little Toasters, and more.

 

The process of revealing the personality of a character is called ______________.

 

_________ ________ are all the aspects of a person’s behavior and attitudes that make up a person’s personality.  Some examples of character traits include active, bossy, compassionate, competitive, cruel, dependable, and eager.    

 

To _______ _______ means to give supporting evidence from the text. 

 

A _______ ______ may be defined as a noun denoting something material and non-abstract, as a chair, house, or car, and much more.

 

A __________ is a struggle against some outside enemy or some internal problem.  Examples of ___________s include character versus character, character versus society, character versus nature, or an idea against an idea (Vengeance versus Forgiveness)

 

If a character is struggling with some inner problem, such as fear, anger or homesickness, the character is contending with an ________ ________

 

If a character is struggling against something outside himself or herself, like in “The Sniper,” he or she has an _________ _____________

  

___________ is an abstract noun that means all of the meanings, associations, and emotions that a word suggests.  For example, skinny and slender both mean thin. 

 

However, skinny and slender have different __________.  Skinny might be considered an insult.  Slender is usually a compliment.  

 

The word ____________ is a noun the means a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

When a writer uses __________ __________ the author tells us directly what the character is like. 

 

__________ ________ occurs when the audience knows something important the character or characters do not. 

 

A __________ ___________ is a character that changes as the result of the story’s events. 

 

________ _________ or _________ of ________ are words or phrases that describe one thing in terms of another and are not meant to be understood on a literal level. 

 

A ______-_______ ________ is a character in the story.

 

A _____ ________ has only one or two character traits, and these can be described in a few words.  (In drama and literature, Nazis are usually flat characters.  Demons and the Devil are flat characters.  )

 

A ______ _______ is any story passed down by ordinary people through the oral tradition.

 

The word ________ is a _________ that may be defined as a set of patterns concerning the way words and are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences, whether spoken or in writing. 

 

The word _____________ can be a _______  or a noun that means the author uses clues to hint at events that will occur later in the story.

 

The word ____________ is a _______ that refers to a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion or to create comic effect.  “The limousine was as long as an ocean liner.” 

 

When a writer uses __________ _________, we have to use our own judgment to decide what a character is like based on evidence the writer gives us.  Some methods of indirect characterization could include the author describing how the character dresses, speaks, behaves, and appears.       

 

An ________ _________ is a situation that turns out to be the opposite of what we expected.

 

The word __________ is an adjective that means taking words at the usual and most basic sense without using simile, metaphor, or any kind of figurative meaning. 

 

The word ___________ is a ________ that refers to a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the word, like, as, than, or resembles.  “My father is a work horse.” 

 

_________ is a _______ that means to give a written or spoken account. 

 

The ___________ is the voice telling the story. 

 

The word ____________ can be an adjective that means having a reality independent of the mind.  Facts are objective.  Opinions are subjective.  “Numbers behave.  Words do not.” 

 

The word ____________ can be an adjective that means not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased. 

 

An ____________ is a noun that refers to a figure of speech in which two opposite ideas are joined to create an effect.  (cruel kindness, living death) 

 

A ___________ is a statement of situation that seems to be a contradiction but reveals a truth.  (The more a man learns, the more he realizes how little he knows.” Anonymous)

 

The word _____________ is a noun that refers to a kind of metaphor in which nonhuman things are talked about as if they were human.

 

A story’s ________ is a series of related events, like a chain.  Exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and the resolution make up the plot. 

 

The ____________ reveals the characters and setting.

 

A particular conflict is introduced in the _______ ________

 

The conflict is resolved in the ___________, the most emotional moment of the story. 

The conflict is resolved in the ___________, the most emotional moment of the story. 

 

__________ ______ follows the climax, where the audience may learn more details about the conflict and the way it worked out.    

 

Finally, the story ends with the ____________, which may be happily ever after or heartbreaking or somewhere in between.          

 

________ __ ________ is the vantage point from which a story is told. 

 

A _________ __________ is a character that has many different character traits that sometimes contradict each other, like a real person. 

 

A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought.  A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.  A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses but no subordinate clauses.  A complex sentence has one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.  A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.

 

A story’s ______________ tells when and where the story takes place.

 

A __________ is a noun that refers to a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, or than.  “I love you like Kanye loves Kanye.” 

 

__________ _________ occurs when there is a contrast between what would seem appropriate and what really happens.  (Regan’s limo, “The Sniper,” and “The Interlopers,” are examples of situational irony.) 

 

_________ __________ is a noun that refers to the English that is well established by usage in the formal and informal speech and writing of the educated and that is widely recognized and acceptable wherever English is spoken.   

 

A _______ _________ is a character that does not change much in a story.

 

The word ____________ can be an adjective that means existing in the mind; belonging to the thinking subject rather than the object of thought.  (Opposed to the objective)

 

A ________ _________ resolves story’s climax in an unexpected-yet logical-way.

  

The word _____________ is a noun that refers to the uncertainty we feel about what is going to happen next in a story.  Suspense is the feeling that keeps us on the edge of our seat.  

 

A story’s _________ is often revealed by what a character has discovered as a result of the action.  The ________ is also the central idea of a work of literature.

 

A story’s _____ often gives clues to the story’s theme. 

 

A ______-_______ _______ of view focuses on the thoughts and feelings of a single character in the story.   

 

An _____________ ______________ is someone who is not always perceptive about what is going on in a story, or someone who is deliberately not telling the truth. 

 

When using _______ _________, the speaker says one thing but really means something completely different. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literary Terms

 

Alliteration is the repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together in a poem. 

 

Open her I flung the shutter, when with

     Many a flirt and flutter,

In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly

    Days of yore. 

Edgar Allen Poe from “The Raven.”

 

Allegory is a short story of poem that has more meaning than is apparent.  For example, Aesop’s fable about the tortoise and the hare is about more than the animals’ race.  The audience should understand the importance of persistence.  Homer reflects this theme in The Odyssey, explaining, “Evil deeds do not prosper; the slow catch up with the swift.” 

 

Allusion is a reference to a statement, a person, or an event from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture. 

 

Dickens writes of “The wicked Noah’s Ark,” making an allusion to Noah from the Bible. 

 

Apostrophe is when the speaker speaks to something not there, or not human, on inanimate, like a statue, as though the entity could respond.  This lets the audience glimpse the speaker’s imagination. 

 

Assonance is a repetition of vowel sounds in language and poetry. 

 

The light of the fire is a sight. 

 

Consonance means the repetition of certain sounds, usually consonants for poetic effect. 

 

Blank and think, spell and scald . . .

 

Dialect is a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

Diction is a writer’s or a speaker’s choice of words.  Diction is an essential element of a writer’s style.  (Simple to ornate to everything in between)

 

An epic is a long story told in elevated language, which relates the great deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society.  Most epics include elements of myth, legend, folk tale, and history.  Epics cover most of the known world, a possible visit to the underworld, and the supernatural. 

 

An epithet is an adjective or descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, thing, or an idea.  (Honest Abe, the Dark Knight, the Man of Steal, rosy-fingered dawn, the wine dark sea, the gray-eyed goddess Athena are examples of epithets) 

 

Hyperbole is a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion of to create comic effect.  Writers often use hyperbole, called overstatement, to intensify a description or to emphasize the essential nature of something.  If you way that a limousine is as long as an ocean liner, you are using hyperbole. 

 

Imagery is language that appeals to the senses.  Imagery is often visual, as when a writer creates pictures in our mind.  Imagery can also appeal to sound, touch, taste, smell, or even to several senses at once. 

 

Irony is a contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality. 

 

In verbal irony, a writer or speaker says one thing but means something completely different. 

 

If you refer to a clumsy basketball player as the next Michael Jordan, you are using verbal irony. 

 

A metaphor is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the word like, as, than, or resembles. 

 

Onomatopoeia is the use of a word whose sound imitates or suggests its meaning.  Onomatopoeia is so natural to us that we begin using it instinctively as children.  Crackle, pop, fizz, click, zoom, and chirp are examples of onomatopoeia.  

 

A paradox is a statement or situation that seems to be a contradiction but reveals a truth.  Paradoxes in literature are designed to make readers stop and think.  When O. Henry, in “The Gift of the Magi,” refers to the impoverished Della and Jim as “one of the richest couples on earth,” he is stating a paradox. 

 

Personification is a kind of metaphor in which a nonhuman thing or quality is talked about as if it were human. 

 

Satire is a type of writing that ridicules something in order to reveal a weakness.  Satire may ridicule a person, a group of people, humanity at large, an attitude of failing, or a social institution. 

 

Simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, resembles, or than. 

 

A symbol is a person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and for something beyond itself as well.  Odysseus’ bow is a bow, and the bow is a symbol for Odysseus.  Odysseus is the wily peer to the gods, and he alone can string the bow, because he is the hero of The Odyssey.    

 

The theme is the central idea of a work of literature.  A theme is not the same as the subject.  The theme is the idea the writer wishes to reveal about the subject.         

 

http://www.writersdigest.com/whats-new/write-a-how-to-article-in-6-easy-steps

When the bell rings, you are expected to be creating a definition for the word respect.  What does the word respect mean?  Can you note an example?

Greetings

Beautiful, Thankful, Great Day, TSHOM

Respectful, Responsible, and Safe  

Discuss the respect expectations.  

Review 3.8 paragraph.  Your 3.8 paragraphs will be your exit slips.  

Move to partners being mindful of voice levels and personal space.  

If you pick at someone in this classroom, are you showing respect?  

If you speak while someone else is speaking, are you showing respect?

If you are on your cell phone, are you showing respect?  

If you are refusing to participate, are you showing respect?     

Join groups and peer review.  

Review 3.8 paragraphs.  Move to partners being mindful of voice levels and personal space.

Review The Odyssey and the background for the epic poem.

Read “Penelope.”  P. 651.


An Epic Poem:  The Odyssey
Overview of the Unit
After reading, know approximately when Western Civilization began.  When was the Golden Age of Greece?  When was the pre-classical period?  What two great works of literature were composed during this pre-classical period?  Who is credited with writing these poems?  Describe the land of Greece.  What could the Greeks always turn to for inspiration?  

Western Civilization began in Greece nearly three thousand years ago.  The literary and philosophical achievements of the Golden Age of Greece, which lasted from about 480 to 430 BCE, had a profound and lasting fluency on Western Culture, but it is from an earlier period, approximately 800 to 500 BC, that the foundations of later Greek society were established.  It was during this “pre-classical” period that the two great monuments of Greek literature, The Iliad and The Odyssey, were composed.  
    Sometime after the end of the Trojan War in the mid-1200s BC, Greece fell into a Dark Age that lasted for centuries.  During this Dark Age, the country was poor and sparsely populated, and there was no system of writing.  Tales of an earlier, more prosperous time were told in the form of songs and poems, establishing an oral tradition.  
    The ancient Greeks lived in a small country with few natural resources.  Most of the land was rocky and ill-suited for farming.  The forests had been depleted by previous generations, and there was little wood for ships or shelter.  The mountainous terrain make the construction of passable roads all but impossible; messages carried by runners were the primary means of communication.  But the Greeks could always turn to the sea.   No part of Greece is more than 90 miles from water, and there Greeks became the foremost seafarers of the day.  They were fishermen, traders, and colonists of outlying lands.  
    Partly because of the contact these people made with other cultures, an increasingly civilized society arose.  For example, the Greeks, influenced by trade with Egypt and the East, developed intricately decorative pottery, monumental architecture, and netted an Iron Age of tool-making.  Religious festivals brought together nobility, artists, and athletes and culminated in the Olympic Games.  The Olympics, which were first held in 776 BCE, honored Zeus, the king of the gods.  The event was so important that even wards stopped during the Olympics.  Victors were crowned with laurel leaves and were glorified in poems and sculptures.  
    Sometime in the eighth century BCE, the Geeks borrowed aspects of an alphabet from a nearby land and adapted it to fit their own language.  The earliest surviving examples of Greek writing date to 730 BCE, although it is possible that there were earlier writing that have been lost.  The introduction of an alphabet allowed Homer to write down what had previously been only an oral account of perhaps the greatest event in Greek history:  the Trojan War.  
    Little is known about the Trojan War except for what is revealed in the epics of Homer and Virgil, and even there, many detains are disputed.  Until well into the nineteenth century, most scholars assumed that the entire conflict was a legend with no basis in fact, but the late nineteenth-century expeditions of the German archaeologist Shliemann culminated in the discovery of ruins that are now generally accepted as being the original site of Troy.  The ruins are located in present day Turkey and reveal that at least seven cities were built and destroyed on the same site.  One of them is believed to be the Troy that Homer described.  Since this discovery, the Trojan War has come to be accepted as an historical event, but the actual causes and progress of the war remain the subject of much speculation.  
    The earliest Greek writings continued the oral tradition of the Dark Age and consisted of oral poetry that was recorded in writing rather than a deliberate attempt to create literature.  Some scholars maintain that Homer was an exceptional poet who was not literate himself but who sang or dictated his great epics to a scribe who did the actual writing.  Whatever their origin, The Iliad and The Odyssey mark the beginnings of Western literature, and their profound influence on the Greeks and the rest of Europe remains unsurpassed.
    Following Homer’s time, literacy spread quickly throughout the city-states of Greece.  By the fourth century BCE, the Greeks had developed nearly every. Important form of Western discourse, including epic poetry, history, philosophy, and drama (both tragedy and comedy). 


An Epic Poem:  The Odyssey
Overview of the Unit

Western Civilization began in __________ nearly __________ thousand years ago.  The literary and philosophical achievements of the Golden Age of Greece, which lasted from about 480 to 430 BCE, had a profound and lasting fluency on Western Culture, but it is from an earlier period, approximately 800 to 500 BC, that the foundations of later Greek society were established.  It was during this “pre-classical” period that the two great monuments of Greek literature, The ________ and The ____________, were composed.  
    Sometime after the end of the _________ _______ in the mid-1200s BC, Greece fell into a _____ _____ that lasted for centuries.  During this Dark Age, the country was poor and sparsely populated, and there was no system of writing.  Tales of an earlier, more prosperous time were told in the form of songs and ____________, establishing an oral tradition.  
    The ancient Greeks lived in a small country with few natural resources.  Most of the land was rocky and ill-suited for farming.  The forests had been depleted by previous generations, and there was little wood for ships or shelter.  The mountainous terrain make the construction of passable roads all but impossible; messages carried by __________ were the primary means of communication.  But the Greeks could always turn to the _________.   No part of Greece is more than __ miles from water, and there Greeks became the foremost seafarers of the day.  They were fishermen, traders, and colonists of outlying lands.  
    Partly because of the contact these people made with other cultures, an increasingly ________ society arose.  For example, the Greeks, influenced by trade with _______ and the East, developed intricately decorative __________, monumental architecture, and netted an Iron Age of tool-making.  Religious festivals brought together nobility, artists, and athletes and culminated in the _________ Games.  The Olympics, which were first held in ____ ____, honored ______, the king of the gods.  The event was so important that even wards stopped during the Olympics.  Victors were crowned with laurel leaves and were glorified in poems and sculptures.  
    Sometime in the eighth century BCE, the Geeks borrowed aspects of an ________ from a nearby land and adapted it to fit their own language.  The earliest surviving examples of Greek writing date to 730 BCE, although it is possible that there were earlier writing that have been lost.  The introduction of an alphabet allowed ________  to write down what had previously been only an oral account of perhaps the greatest event in Greek history:  the _______ ________.  
    Little is known about the Trojan War except for what is revealed in the epics of _______ and Virgil, and even there, many detains are disputed.  Until well into the nineteenth century, most scholars assumed that the entire conflict was a ________ with no basis in fact, but the late nineteenth-century expeditions of the __________ archaeologist Shliemann culminated in the discovery of ruins that are now generally accepted as being the original site of _______.  The ruins are located in present day _______ and reveal that at least seven cities were built and destroyed on the same site.  One of them is believed to be the Troy that Homer described.  Since this discovery, the Trojan War has come to be accepted as an historical event, but the actual causes and progress of the war remain the subject of much speculation.  
    The earliest Greek writings continued the oral tradition of the Dark Age and consisted of oral poetry that was recorded in writing rather than a deliberate attempt to create literature.  Some scholars maintain that Homer was an exceptional poet who was not literate himself but who sang or dictated his great epics to a scribe who did the actual writing.  Whatever their origin, The Iliad and The Odyssey mark the beginnings of Western literature, and their profound influence on the Greeks and the rest of Europe remains unsurpassed.
    Following Homer’s time, literacy spread quickly throughout the city-states of Greece.  By the fourth century BCE, the Greeks had developed nearly every. Important form of Western discourse, including epic poetry, history, philosophy, and drama (both tragedy and comedy). 

 

IV

http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-abstract-nouns.html

 

 

Bell Work:  How do you predict the suitors will treat the disguised Odysseus?  Explain your reasoning?  Was there any foreshadowing? 

Answer attendance with an adverb. 

https://www.mobap.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/list_of_adverbs.pdf

Complete questions on page 636. 

Read "Argos" and "The Suitors." 

Vocabulary:  “I have . . . Who has?”

Continue 3.8 paragraphs.

Exit Slips. 

Resources:  Text, Chrome Books, Notebooks, Pencils. 

Higher Order Questions:  To what extent do you shape your own destiny, and how much is down to fate?

Lesson:  Bell Work, Attendance, Review, Continue the questions.  Continue The Odyssey. 

Exit Slip, Closing:  I have . . . Who has? 

Participation (Lead and Follow)

Violations

  1. Choosing to speak without permission and interrupt other community members.
  2. Choosing not to follow clear instructions.
  3. Choosing not to listen. 
  4. Choosing to disrupt class. 
  5. Choosing to use foul, vulgar, or inappropriate language.
  6. Choosing not to communicate with in a voluble manner in classroom discussions.
  7. Choosing to be excessively voluble during group work. 

Good Topic Sentences for 3.8 Paragraph (Abstract Nouns)

                 ____________, I miss your honesty, kindness, and sense of humor.  I read your letter again last night.  While I don’t think you are really as mean as you say, I hope never to provoke your anger.  I also appreciated the validity of your comments about my jokes.  Even though all of them aren’t funny, you made me feel like I should keep telling jokes anyway.  You always took my comments about your hair well.  I appreciate that, because not everyone can be part of a joke and not get upset.  In other words, I miss you.     

 

       You need honestly, courage, and bravery.

 

       A good leader has respect, bravery, and loyalty. 

 

       My girlfriend gives me her honesty, kindness, and a good sense of humor.

 

       A good leader shows respect, honesty, and bravery.

 

       I am honest, kind, and loving. 

       A good grandparent demonstrates a sense of humor, love, and kindness. 

 

       __________, I miss your humor, childish actions, and your kindness.  

 

       My mom has kindness, respect, and encouragement. 

 

       As a leader, ____________ demonstrates honesty, kindness, and determination. 

You Are Here

Subjective Historical and Artistic Periods

 

  1. Some scholars date the beginning of Western Civilization from 3100 BCE to 500 CE, or 3100 BC to 500 AD.*  This period includes the Trojan War, Homer popularizing the story of that war with is epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey.  Greek children learned about religion, public speaking, storytelling, morals, hospitality, and more by studying these epics.  The literature of Ancient Greece was mirrored in the art.  Artistic figures that were probably copied from Ancient Egypt went from being one dimensional to two and three dimensional, with the figures appearing far more realistic and human than the images in Egypt.  Later, Socrates, one of the first major philosophers, sometimes alluded to the epics in discussions and questions about knowledge.  Plato, one of Socrates students, wrote about Socrates in his dialogues.  Socrates, in contrast, wrote nothing.  Greece often gets credit for the development of democracy, poetry, drama, philosophy, and so much more.  Rome conquered Greece, and enslaved many of the Greeks.  The Romans even adopted and renamed the Greeks’ gods.  The Roman Empire grew, evolved, decayed, and then fell in 476 CE.  

     

    *BCE stands for before Common Era, and CE stands for Common Era.  A growing number of people have adopted these terms to replace BC and AD (commonly referred to as Before Christ and After Death) as the world becomes more of a connected community with a need to communicate across religious lines.  In other words, Christianity is one religion among several, and the evolving notions in discourse encourage respecting all beliefs.    

     

  2. 500 to 1400 CE can be referred to as The Dark Ages, or Medieval Times.  Following the fall of Rome in 476 CE, large cities and civilizations evolved into manor farms.  Nobles and Lords ruled the manors, which were large land holdings worked by the poor who lived there, serving the rich nobles. 
  3. 1400 to 1600 CE can be considered the Renaissance.  The word renaissance means rebirth, for this time is considered to be the rebirth of the ideas from classical Greece and Rome, where democracy, poetry, drama, philosophy, and so much more began.  The art and literature also mirrored that of classical antiquity.  Important Renaissance Masters include Raphael, Donatello, Da Vinci, and Michelangelo.  

     

  4. 1580 to 1750 CE are referred to as the Baroque era.  During this time, the realistic figures produced in the Renaissance developed a more dramatic, dynamic, and emotional aesthetic.  Michelangelo, one of the Renaissance Masters, had a long life and a career that continued from the Renaissance into the Baroque era.  Rembrandt is an important artist from this period.  (Mannerism)     
  5. Some literature refers to the time between 1720 and 1830 as the Neoclassical Period.  Neo means new, so the Neoclassical Period was again a return to the ideas of Classical Antiquity.  One of the most important artists of the Neoclassical Period is named Jacque Louis David.  He painted a bevy of masterpieces, including "The Death of Socrates."  The American Revolution, the French Revolution, the War of 1812, and the Enlightenment also occurred during the Neoclassical Period.    
  6. Impressionism and Postimpressionism appeared from 1800 to 1900. During this period, many artists concerned themselves with painting not the image they observed, but the impression the image gave them.  Pissarro was like a father figure several artists who are considered to be artists of Impressionism and Postimpressionism. 
  7. Some label the span of time from 1820 to 1900 as Romanticism.  Art and literature of this time focused on feeling, subjectivity, the individual, and faith in nature.  Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein in the early 19th century, and the book was first published in 1818, becoming an important Romantic novel, as well as perhaps the first science-fiction novel.  "The Wanderer Above a Sea of Fog" is a popular painting from the Romantic Period.  The American Civil War fits into the times of Romanticism, Impressionism, and Postimpressionism. 
  8. 1890 to 1960 can be referred to as the Modern Era.  World War I, World War II, and the Korean War all fit into the Modern Era.  Music and film began to eclipse painting, sculpture, and even theatre during this period. Technology allowed the spread of these mediums easily. 
  9. 1960 until this present moment (October 25, 2017) may be called Postmodern.  The British Invasion which brought the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, Motown, and much more are part of postmodernism.  

Classical Antiquity 3100 BCE to 500 AD

 

The Alexander Mosaic

The Alexander Mosaic was found during the excavation of Pompeii in 1831 in the “Casa del Fauno” (House of the Faun). Today it is one of the most famous Roman mosaics. Measuring 5.82 x 3.13 m, the mosaic is thought by many to depict the Battle of Issus between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius III in the year 333 BC. Others however believe that the tableau shows the battle of Gaugamela in the year 331 BC, where Alexander the Great and Darius clashed once again.

The picture shows Alexander storming in at the head of his troops from the left edge, attempting to engage Darius in battle. But the Persian has already turned to flee, with only his eyes directed towards Alexander.

The Alexander Mosaic, independently of its fitting in the “Casa del Fauno,” was created in the 3rd century BC and based on an original no longer in existence. The original may have been the work of Philoxenos of Eretrea from the 4th century BC. There is also a belief that a Hellenistic painting was used as the model. The mosaic shows the magnificence of Greek monumental painting and four-colour painting.

Today, the original Alexander Mosaic is on display in the National Museum of Archaeology in Naples. An exact copy – identical in shape, size, colour and materials used – was created after several years of work by the Scuola Bottega del Mosaico di Ravenna and is now installed in Pompeii.

The above information comes from . . .

http://alexandermosaik.de/en/

Bell Work:  What do you plan to do when you leave Breathitt High?  What job do you want to work?  What do you plan to study in college?

Career Ready:  Please focus on your voice levels.  Answer attendance with a word or short phrase that has to do with literature so the class can hear you.  Work quietly when we begin our group work.

Bell Work-10

Sitting with your group-10

Being alert-10

Working appropriately-10

Joining your group-10

You can earn 50 points today. 

Join your groups.

First Period

Robin-Braxton-Parker-Chassity

Holona-Tessa-Jacob Swift

Mackenzie-Kaleb--Riley

Sarah-Jacob Turner-Andrew Mister-Hannah

James-Destiny-Jacob Stamper-Katlyn

Jamison-Jerry-Olivia

Second Period

Gregory-Travis-Dvonte-Tom

Courtney Bowling-Dylan Sizemore-Michael-Tyler

Frankie-Adrianna-Nick-Andrew

Enrique-Deandra-Chance-Malachai

Skylar-Alexis-Jack-Sabrina-Josh

Hayley-Jared-Shaunta-Courtney Mitchell

Fourth Period

Rhea-Clarissa-Kaitlyn-Jaylan

Tanae-Austin-Jack-Whitney

Trenton-Tabor-Leah-Nate

Mckenzie-Wes-Cody-Jacob

Ryan-Amos-Haley-Bradey

Burley-Paige-Lydia-Kaylee

Fifth Period

Chris-Dylan Terry-Braxton-Ethan

Jarrod-Brayden-Bryton-Tristan

Michael-Gentry-Maykala-Arlie

Bryan-Trey-Kendra-Timothy

Mikey-Eric-Emily-Zack

Caroline-Lane-Jake-Jamie

Seventh Period

Jeanna-Everett-Nick-Dylan Lucas (All the letters)

Joe-Megan-Justin-Allen (Chapter 1)

Noah-Ruthie-Jonathon-Russell (Chapter 2)

Brandon Gayheart-Jason-Ashley-Taylor (Chapter 3) 

Andrew-Kayla-Sierra-Kendra (Chapter 4)

Adrian-Chelsey-Jimmy Campbell-Brooklyn (Chapter 5)

Hallie-Tammy-Christa-Brandon (Chapter 6)

Crystal-Dylan Watkins-Jacob (Chapter 7)

Task One

Working together, decide the most important movie every freshman should see.  Do this Chalkboard Splash Style.  Choose a spokesperson for your group.     

Task Two ENG I:

Working with your group, answer all the items on page 616.  Post your work to our class.  Include everyone’s name. 

Task Two ENG IV:

Using complete sentences, summarize the chapter of Frankenstein listed by your group.  Include everyone’s name.  Post you work to our classroom. 

Prepare for Departure.  Discuss higher order thinking skills.

The earth is traveling through space at about 67,000 miles-per-hour.

Types of sentences link . . .   

https://www.scholastic.com/content/collateral_resources/pdf00premium/33/0439434033_e001.pdf

 

ENG I 

Bell Work:  How would you compare Odysseus and his men’s experience with the Cyclops to another story you know?