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                                THIS IS WHAT YOUR CHILD WILL LEARN IN SCIENCE

Forces and Interactions: Pushes and Pulls

K.PS2   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions 

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

K-PS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.  [Clarification Statement: Examples of pushes or pulls could include a string attached to an object being pulled, a person pushing an object, a person stopping a rolling ball, and two objects colliding and pushing on each other.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to different relative strengths or different directions, but not both at the same time. Assessment does not include non-contact pushes or pulls such as those produced by magnets.]
K-PS2-2. Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of problems requiring a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain distance, follow a particular path, and knock down other objects. Examples of solutions could include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of the object and a structure that would cause an object such as a marble or ball to turn.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include friction as a mechanism for change in speed.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to support explanations or design solutions.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing observations.

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Connections to the Nature of Science


Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

  • Scientists use different ways to study the world. (K-PS2-1)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces

ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect


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L.B.J. Elementary
90 LBJ Road
Jackson, KY 41339