BIBLIOGRAPHY and Process Paper

Click this link for online bibliography help http://www.easybib.com/ for the biblography style, use MLA.

 

The Annotated Bibliography

As a researcher, it is important to give credit to sources that you have used in your research. Any source that has informed your project must be listed in your bibliography. Annotations are simply 1-4 sentences that explain how the source helped you create your project. This will help the judges in determining how balanced your research was and in determining the depth of your reading into the sources.

Most judging teams like to see the primary sources first. Remember, a primary source is anything that was created during a historical event. This could be a journal, newspaper article, memo, or a memory that was later written down in an autobiography. Judges like to see these first because it shows the extent of investigation that you have done.

 

Secondary sources should be listed second. It is very important to annotate these carefully. You should state the main idea of the source, the most important evidence that was offered to support the main idea, and how the source influenced your project. Judges, especially at the national level, will be looking at your selections and how carefully you read them. They are impressed by quality annotations of important secondary sources. However, it is important to not make your annotations too long. Judges want to be able to scan all of your sources quickly while they review your bibliography.

 

Examples of Annotated Bibliographies

Primary Source

Droke, Maxwell. Good-by to G.I. New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1945.

Distributed to servicemen after World War II, this book gives some insight into life in the 1940s.  Soldiers returning from war were given instruction on how to assimilate back into American society.  For my project on the psychological effects of war, I found the tone of this book very interesting.  Several direct quotes from this manual appear in my research paper.

 

Secondary Source

 LeBor, Adam. Hitler’s Secret Bankers: The Myth of Swiss Neutrality during the Holocaust. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1997.

 

In this book, LeBor takes on the idea of Swiss neutrality during World War II.  Most accounts of the war show Switzerland as a neutral country, but LeBor has uncovered evidence of collaboration between the Swiss government, Swiss banks, and Nazi Germany.  LeBor relies on a great deal of unclassified primary documents, and his book gave me a great framework for my research.

 

Example of Process paper with Bibliography

SAMPLE PROCESS PAPER AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Process Paper should be no longer than 500 words and should explain how

First section should explain how you chose your topic.

Second section should explain how you conducted your research.

Third section should explain how you selected your presentation category and created your project.

Fourth section should explain how your project relates to the NHD theme.

The Annotated Bibliography should contain all sources that provided usable information or new perspectives in preparing your entry

list only those sources that contributed to the development of your entry

include sources of visual materials and oral interviews

provide annotations that explain how you used the source and how it helped you understand your topic

be separated into primary and secondary sources

use a consistent style, either Turabian or MLA

The following sample process paper and annotated bibliography are from a Junior Individual Documentary that competed at National History Day 2006.

 

 

Stand or Stunt?

The Sensational Trial of John Thomas Scopes

Lauren White

Junior Division

Individual Documentary

 

 

Choosing a topic fitting the History Day theme, “Taking a Stand in History:

People, Ideas, Events,” happened quite by accident this past summer when I found myself

watching the 1960’s film “Inherit the Wind.” My first impression was, “Wow! This story

portrays a real-life stand taken against an unjust law.” I knew then that I had found my

topic: the trial of John Thomas Scopes, although, at the time, I did not know the

defendant’s real name. My interest was piqued when I learned that the story depicted in

the film had little to do with the facts of the case upon which it is commonly thought to

be based. Amazingly, in the real-life trial, John Scopes was convicted of teaching

evolution without ever having taught Biology. The ACLU used Scopes as a pawn for its

cause and, at the same time, the townspeople of Dayton used the trial as a publicity stunt

seeking economic gain.

I conducted my research into the Scopes trial through the use of primary and

secondary sources obtained during visits to the University of Maryland library, the

Scopes Trial Museum and Court House in Dayton, Tennessee, and the Bryan College

Archives, which included an interview with Scopes Trial specialist and author of many

publications on the subject, Dr. Richard Cornelius. The trip to Dayton offered the

opportunity to speak with other authorities on the trial, as well, which was particularly

invaluable to my research because it helped me wade through the huge amount of

information, including much misinformation, published on the trial over the years.

Because of the sensational nature of the trial and the large number of photographs

available, I felt a documentary would best convey my ideas. As the old adage goes, “A

picture is worth 10,000 words.” Images in the documentary include photographs from

collections of the University of Tennessee, Bryan College Special Collections, the

Library of Congress, the Smithsonian Archives, the Chicago Historical Society, and

photographs and video I took at the site of the trial and during an interview with Dr.

Cornelius. Clips and newsreel footage from existing films were added to enhance the

project. The documentary was produced through the use of Final Cut Pro software,

which entailed placing the images and film clips in order, combining them with recorded

narration, music, transitions and effects such as panning and zooming, and recording the

final product onto DVD disk.

The Scopes Trial proved to be an ideal topic for the theme, “Taking a Stand in

History.” Even though the stand taken by John Scopes against the law banning the

teaching of evolution in Tennessee public schools was orchestrated and started as a

publicity stunt, various participants took genuine stands that represented enduring

conflicting ideas in American society. The trial gave worldwide focus to the debate over

creationism versus evolution, as well as the issue of academic rights and the question of

citizens’ rights to control their own schools. All of these issues remain controversial and

unresolved in our society today.

Word count: 500

Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

American Civil Liberties Union. “Plan Assault on State Law on Evolution.”

Daily Times:

Chattanooga, Tenn.

 

[Chattanooga] 4 May 1925.

This newspaper article, posted by the ACLU in a popular Tennessee publication,

stating that it was looking for a teacher to test the new anti-evolution law in

Tennessee, gives insight into the events leading up to the Scopes trial. A

photograph of the newspaper page on which this article appeared is used in the

documentary.

America, A look Back: The Jazz Age

 

. 1989. Videocassette. NBC News Productions.

This videocassette production is a compilation of newsreel footage of life in

America during the 1920’s with narration by Tom Brokaw. This source is listed

as primary because the video includes newsreel footage in its original form. Two

short segments of this film are used in this project to help put the Scopes trial into

historical context.

Berryman, Clifford Kennedy.

Evolution in Tennessee. Drawing. 1925. Library of

Congress, Washington, D.C.

This cartoon depicting the “evolution” of the townspeople of Dayton during the

Scopes trial aided greatly in the understanding of how the media distorted the

facts of the trial. A photograph of this cartoon is used in the documentary.

- - -.

My first real bath; gee! ain’t it great! Drawing. 1925. Library of Congress,

Washington, D.C.

This cartoon depicting Dayton residents as country yokels is an excellent example

of how the Dayton citizens were unjustly portrayed by the media. A photograph

of this cartoon is used in the documentary.

Best Minds.

 

Drawing. 1925. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

This cartoon depicting William Jennings Bryan as a man blind to science is one of

the many examples of how the press portrayed Bryan as an ignorant bigot and

focused most of its reporting on the evolution side of the issues that became

prominent in the Scopes trial. A photograph of this cartoon is used in the

documentary.

Bryan, William Jennings, and Mary Baird Bryan.

The Memoirs of William Jennings

Bryan

 

. Philadelphia: Winston, 1925.

This autobiographical book is extremely helpful in getting a feel for the

personality of William Jennings Bryan and aids in the understanding of his

interest in the Scopes trial as well as his life before the trial.

Cornelius, Richard M., ed.

Selected Orations of William Jennings Bryan: 75th

Anniversary Edition, with an essay by Pulitzer Prizewinner Edward J. Larson

 

.

Dayton: Bryan College, 2003.

This collection of transcripts of several of William Jennings Bryan’s speeches

gave insight into the personality of Bryan and the strength of his fundamentalist

beliefs, as well as attesting to his keen oratorical skills.

Darrow, Clarence.

The Story of My Life. New York: Scribner’s, 1932.

This autobiographical book aids in the understanding of how and why Clarence

Darrow became involved in the Scopes trial. It gives insight into his strong

personality as a defense lawyer and the differences between his philosophies and

those of William Jennings Bryan.

Darwin, Charles, M.A.

The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. 1859. 6th ed.

London: Murray, 1885.

Darwin’s published work about the origin of species explained the theory on

which the section on evolution in Dayton’s high school textbook was based and

adds greatly to the understanding of the controversy between the beliefs of

fundamentalist Christians and evolutionists. Giving this controversy worldwide

focus was a major historical impact of the Scopes trial. A photograph of the cover

page of this book is used in the documentary.

Downtown Dayton, Tennessee July 1925. Photograph. Science Service Records 1902-

1965. Smithsonian Archives, Washington, D.C.

This photograph of a street in Dayton, Tennessee was used as a visual image in

the documentary to set the scene of the trial.

"Evolution Trial." Cartoon.

New York Times 12 July 1925.

This cartoon showing a monkey with human abilities aids greatly in the

understanding of how the media’s coverage of the trial was sensationalized. A

photograph of this cartoon is used in the documentary.

House Bill No. 64,

Public Acts of the State of Tennessee Passed by the Eighty-fifth

General Assembly

 

. 17 May 1967.

This document, which is a part of the permanent records of the State of

Tennessee’s General Assembly, is the legislation repealing the Butler Act. The

significance of this source is that it documents the forty-two year span of time in

which the Butler Act was an active law in Tennessee.

House Bill No. 185,

Public Acts of the State of Tennessee Passed by the Sixty-fourth

General Assembly

 

. 21 Mar. 1925.

This document, known as the Butler Act, is from the official records of the

Tennessee general assembly and is an extremely important research item because

it contains the wording of the law that was supposedly broken by the defendant of

the Scopes trial. A photograph of this document is used in the documentary.

Hunter, George William.

A Civic Biology. New York: American, 1914.

A Civic Biology

 

was the textbook used in Dayton’s high school biology class

before the Scopes trial. Its importance to this project is that it documents that the

subject of evolution was included in an American high school curriculum. When

compared to the revised version of the book that was published in 1926, one can

see the effect that the Scopes trial had on downplaying evolution in school course

work.

- - -.

New Civic Biology. New York: American, 1926.

In 1926, the textbook

A Civic Biology was revised and renamed The New Civic

Biology

 

. When comparing the text of both books one can see that the word

“evolution” was removed and that there was little said about the origin of man.

This change is evidence that the Scopes trial affected the downplaying of

evolution in textbooks.

Inherit the Wind

 

. 1960. Videocassette. MGM/United Artists, 1996.

This videocassette recording of the film

Inherit the Wind, commonly thought to

be a docudrama of the Scopes trial, was extremely useful in evaluating the

distorting effect it had on American society’s perception of the Scopes trial.

When comparing it to the actual transcript and other primary sources, it becomes

apparent that it is only loosely based on the events of the real trial.

"John T. Scopes Found Guilty: Jury Convicts On Request of Defense Counsel."

Olean

Evening Times

 

[Olean] 21 July 1925, Vol. LXV. No. 150 ed.: 1.

NewspaperARCHIVE.com

 

. Heritage Microfilm. 17 Jan. 2006

<http://www.newspaperarchives.com>.

This newspaper account of the end of the Scopes trial documents the fact that

John Scopes was found guilty at the request of Clarence Darrow, a member of his

own defense team. It also speculates that Darrow planned the outcome from the

beginning.

Levy, Leonard W., ed.

The World’s Most Famous Court Trial: Tennessee v. John

Thomas Scopes

 

. 1925. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.

This book is a reprint of the original court transcript from the 1925 Scopes trial

and is an excellent reference for confirming facts about the trial when there are

conflicting accounts in other sources.

Men at the control panels in a room at the Chicago Daily News radio station WMAQ.

Photograph. 1925.

Chicago Daily News negatives collection, Chicago Historical

Society, Chicago.

This photo of a radio room in Chicago receiving and broadcasting the proceedings

of the Scopes trial is used as a visual image in the documentary.

“Monkey Business.”

Songs generated from the Scopes Trial. Audiocassette. Bryan

College Archives.

This audio recording was made from an original record from 1925 and contains

songs with lyrics about the Scopes trial. A segment of the song “Monkey

Business” was used in the audio track of the documentary.

‘Neath palms and sunshine; William Jennings Bryan’s Presbyterian Tourist Bible Class,

Miami, Fla., Feb. 6th, 1921. Photograph. 1921. W. A. Fishbaugh, Library of

Congress, Washington, D.C.

This photograph is of William Jennings Bryan speaking to an assembly of people

about the bible. The large crowd that he draws is evidence of Bryan’s reputation

for having great oratorical skills.

NewspaperARCHIVE.com

 

. Heritage Microfilm. 17 Jan. 2006

<http://www.newspaperarchive.com>.

This source is an extremely useful research tool. It is an archive of newspapers

from the 1800’s to the present containing actual scanned images of the newspaper

pages, not just transcripts of articles. Dozens of articles about the Scopes trial

showing evidence of the biased and sensational press coverage can be found at

this Web site. Articles used as images in the documentary are cited separately in

the bibliography.

"No Wonder the Monkeys Are Worried." Cartoon.

Nashville Tennessean. 29 June 1925:

4.

This cartoon depicting monkeys with human characteristics aids greatly in the

understanding of how the media sensationalized the evolution side of the issues

during the Scopes trial. A photograph of this cartoon is used in the documentary.

Olson, Steven P.

The Trial of John T. Scopes: A Primary Source Account. New York:

Rosen Publishing Group, 2004.

This book uses primary source documents to explain the events surrounding the

Scopes trial and the impact of the trial on history. It contained images of many of

the sources. Not only did it help in the understanding of the topic, but it also aided

in finding primary source documents to use in the research process for this

documentary.

Scientists summoned to testify at Scopes trial, July 1925. Photograph. Science Service

Records 1902 –1965. Smithsonian Archives, Washington, D.C.

This photograph of a group of scientists who were called to Dayton to testify for

the defense was used as a visual image in the documentary when introducing the

fact that Darrow wanted to include testimony about the validity of the theory of

evolution in the trial.

Scopes, John T. Television interview. 1970. Found in

Twelve Days in Dayton: The

Scopes Monkey Trial

 

. Cole, Kip, prod. Chattanooga PBS Channel WTCI-TV 45,

2001.

Included in this source is video footage from 1970 containing the last interview

given by John Scopes before his death on Oct. 21, 1970. A segment of this

interview, where he admits that he did not teach evolution, is used in the

documentary.

Scopes, John T., and James Presley.

Center of the Storm: Memoirs of John T. Scopes.

New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967.

This autobiographical source contains Scopes’ recollections of the trial and was

useful in determining the role he played in the trial as well as confirming that he

never actually taught evolution.

"Scopes Trial Opens Today: Tennessee Re-Indicts John Thomas Scopes on Anti-

Evolution Law."

Olean Evening Times [Olean] 10 July 1925, Vol. LXV., No. 141

ed.: 1.

NewspaperARCHIVE.com. Heritage Microfilm. 17 Jan. 2006

<http://www.newspaperarchives.com>.

This newspaper article and front-page headline document the opening of the

Scopes trial proceedings on July 10, 1925. It is a good example of the

sensationalized coverage of the trial by the media. A photograph of this frontpage

article is used in the documentary.

Vedantam, Shankar. “Eden and Evolution.”

The Washington Post Magazine, February 6,

2006, p. 8-15.

This magazine article is documentation that the evolution versus creationism issue

is still relevant today. The cover image of the magazine, which featured this

article, is used as an image in the documentary when stating that the debate

continues into the present.

Verdict.

 

Drawing. 1925. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

This cartoon depicting William Jennings Bryan telling a child not to think is one

of the many examples of how the press portrayed Bryan as a religious zealot and

focused most of their reporting on the evolution side of the issues that became

prominent in the Scopes trial. A photograph of this cartoon is used in the

documentary.

W. C. Robinson and Sue K. Hicks Collection.

 

Photographs. 1925. Special Collections,

University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

This vast collection of photographs owned by the University of Tennessee came

from the personal collections of W. C. Robinson, who was the owner of the

drugstore where the plan for the trial was hatched, and Sue Hicks, a member of

the prosecution team. These photographs were invaluable to this project in

visually telling the story of the Scopes trial. Forty-one of the photographs were

used in the documentary.

“Waiting.” Cartoon.

Baltimore Sun, 17 July 1925, 10.

This cartoon labeling William Jennings Bryan as a religious zealot is one of the

many examples of how the press portrayed Bryan in a negative manner. A

photograph of this cartoon is used in the documentary.

Williams Jennings Bryan sitting at a desk. Photograph. 1922.

Chicago Daily News

negatives collection, Chicago Historical Society, Chicago.

This photograph, taken a few years before the Scopes trial, is used in the

documentary to introduce William Jennings Bryan.

Secondary Sources

Cole, Kip, prod.

Twelve Days in Dayton: The Scopes Monkey Trial. Chattanooga PBS

Channel WTCI-TV 45, 2001.

This film is a comprehensive account of the Scopes trial and contains several clips

of newsreel footage of the actual trial. Three short segments of the trial newsreel

footage were used in the documentary along with a clip of John Scopes standing

outside of the courthouse. Additionally, a short segment of a 1970 television

interview with John Scopes at 70 years of age was included in the documentary to

show evidence that he had never taught evolution in the schools.

- - -. “Their Stage Drew All the World: A New Look at the Scopes Evolution Trial.”

Tennessee Historical Quarterly

 

40 (Summer 1981): 129-143.

This article discusses the major events surrounding the Scopes trial and was

helpful in understanding the sequence of events before, during, and after the trial.

- - -.

Understanding William Jennings Bryan and the Scopes Trial: A Study Guide.

Dayton: Bryan College, 1998.

This study guide is used in a course at Bryan College in Dayton, Tennessee and

contains a collection of questions that are helpful to think about when studying

the Scopes trial.

Cornelius, Richard M., and Tom Davis, eds.

Impact: The Scopes Trial, William Jennings

Bryan, and Issues that Keep Revolving

 

. Dayton: Bryan College, 2000.

Understanding of the impact of the Scopes trial can be gained from reading this

source containing a collection of essays focused on the impact of the Scopes trial

as it relates to the creationism vs. evolution issue that is still prevalent today.

Cornelius, Richard M., Ph.D. Personal interview. 16 Aug. 2005.

Dr. Cornelius is an historian at Bryan College in Dayton, Tennessee and a Scopes

trial specialist. During my daylong meeting with him I was able to view and

photograph many primary source materials from the Bryan College Archives and

perform an on-tape personal interview. Dr. Cornelius also gave me leads to good

primary and secondary research sources so that I could get an accurate, well

balanced account of the trial and its implications.

Cruver, Timothy C. Personal interview. 16 Aug. 2005.

Mr. Cruver is the author of

You Be the Judge, a book based on the newspaper

accounts of the Scopes trial. Talking with Mr. Cruver and reading his book gave

me important insight into how the trial was portrayed by the press.

Cruver, Timothy C., and Janet M. Cruver, eds.

You Be the Judge. Dayton: E&T

Enterprises, 2000.

This book, written from the perspective of the newspaper coverage of the Scopes

trial was important to my understanding of the sensationalized press coverage of

the Scopes trial.

De Camp, L. Sprague.

The Great Monkey Trial. Garden City: Doubleday, 1968.

This book discusses the major events surrounding the Scopes trial and was helpful

in understanding the sequence of events before, during, and after the trial.

Donohue, William A.

The Politics of the American Civil Liberties Union. New

Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1985.

This book discussing the history of the ACLU gives an understanding of the role

the ACLU plays in history and, more particularly, the role it played in the Scopes

trial.

Gillis, David. "Twirl, Twirl."

David Gillis Debut. Indie, 2001.

This recorded song was used as background music in the section of the

documentary describing the events leading up to the trial. It was chosen because it

conveys the emotional feeling I desired for this segment.

Ivory Winds. "Ivory Winds."

Piano and Flute Sax. One World Entertainment, 2003.

This recorded song was used as background music in the introductory section of

the documentary as well as the section describing what transpired during the trial.

It was chosen because it conveys the strong emotional feeling I desired for the

introduction.

Johnson, Mack. "Gloranna ." Dir. Debroy Somers.

The Roaring Twenties. Pavilion

Records LTD., 2000.

The CD from which this song was taken contains recorded music showing the

essence of the Roaring Twenties era in America. This song was used as

background music to help give a feel of the time period while describing the

societal changes in America during the 1920s.

Larson, Edward. “75th Anniversary of the Scopes Trial.”

Forum. C-SPAN. 15 July 2000.

This videotape contains a discussion about the Scopes trial and its lasting impact

on American society led by Edward Larson, Pulitzer Prize winning author and

expert on the Scopes trial.

Larson, Edward J.

Summer of the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America’s Continuing

Debate over Science and Religion

 

. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.

This book aided in the understanding of the complexity of the creation versus

evolution issue, which was a major focus in the Scopes trial, and how the issue is

still controversial today in American society.

- - -.

Trial and Error: The American Controversy Over Creation and Evolution. New

York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

This book aided in understanding the complexity of the creation vs. evolution

issue, which was a major focus in the Scopes trial, and how the issue is still

prevalent today in American society.

Larson, Edward J., Edward Caudill, and Jesse Fox Mayshark.

The Scopes Trial: A

Photographic History

 

. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2000.

This book tells the story of the Scopes trial primarily through photographs and

their captions. This book was particularly important while researching the Scopes

trial because it pointed out who owned the collections from which many of the

images used in this project were obtained.

The Monkey Trial

 

. In Search of History. The History Channel/A&E Television Networks.

Jan. 1997.

This documentary gives an in-depth view of the Scopes trial, including the events

that led up to the trial, the trial itself, and the lasting impact of the trial. It was

also an important source for gaining understanding of the issues that became

relevant during the trial of John Scopes.

Moore, Randy. "The Lingering Impact of the Scopes Trial on High School Biology

Textbooks."

BioScience 51.9 (Sept. 2001): 790-796.

This journal article was helpful in understanding how and why the Scopes trial

influenced the teaching of evolution in the years following the trial.

Moran, Jeffrey P.

The Scopes Trial: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St.

Martin’s, 2002.

This book gives a basic overview of the Scopes trial and was useful when

determining the most important facts to include in the time restraints of this

project.

Nightnoise. "Windell."

At the End of the Evening. Windam Hill, 1988.

This recorded song was used as background music in the section of the

documentary describing the impact of the trial on history and during the

conclusion. It was chosen because it conveys the emotional feeling I desired for

this segment and gave the impression of moving toward a conclusion.

Scopes, Jack. “The Man Who Put the Monkey on Dayton’s Back.”

Chattanooga Life and

Leisure

 

July 1989: 12+.

This article was written by the son of John Thomas Scopes and gives great insight

into how the Scopes trial affected the image of the town of Dayton and the state of

Tennessee.

The Scopes “Monkey” Trial 1925

 

. Landmark American Trials. World Almanac Video.

Fall 2000.

This video told the Scopes trial story from the legal perspective and is helpful in

understanding the legal aspects of the Scopes trial.

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